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Android广播

面试APUS的时候被问到广播:
面试官:聊一下广播吧。
我:广播啊,四大组件之一,自己创建个类继承自BroadcastReceiver,重写onReceive()方法,需要注意的是不要在这个方法中做耗时操作。注册的话可以在AndroidManifest文件中静态注册,也可以在代码中动态注册。都做完了之后就可以调用sendBroadCast()方法发送广播了。
面试官:了解广播注册过程么?
我:哈~!这个没怎么看过。
面试官:了解怎么接收到的广播么?
我:没有。。。。

广播的注册过程

《Android开发艺术探索》9.4章
广播的注册分为静态注册和动态注册,其中静态注册的广播在应用安装时由系统自动完成注册,具体来说是由PMS ( PackageManagerService)来完成整个注册过程的,除了广播以外,其他三大组件也都是在应用安装时由PMS解析并注册的。这里只分析广播的动态注册的过程,动态注册的过程是从ContextWrapper的registerReceiver方法开始的,和Activity以及Service一样 。ContextWrapper并 没有做实际的工作,而是将注册过程直接交给了ContextImpl来完成,如下所示:

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@Override
public Intent registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter) {
return mBase.registerReceiver(receiver, filter);
}
@Override
public Intent registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter,String broadcastPermission, Handler scheduler) {
return registerReceiverInternal(receiver, getUserId(),
filter, broadcastPermission, scheduler, getOuterContext(), 0);
}

这里的registerReceiver方法是重载方法,最终调用了registerReceiverInternal方法:

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private Intent registerReceiverInternal(BroadcastReceiver receiver, int userId,
IntentFilter filter, String broadcastPermission,
Handler scheduler, Context context, int flags) {
IIntentReceiver rd = null;
if (receiver != null) {
if (mPackageInfo != null && context != null) {
if (scheduler == null) {
scheduler = mMainThread.getHandler();
}
rd = mPackageInfo.getReceiverDispatcher(
receiver, context, scheduler,
mMainThread.getInstrumentation(), true);
} else {
if (scheduler == null) {
scheduler = mMainThread.getHandler();
}
rd = new LoadedApk.ReceiverDispatcher(
receiver, context, scheduler, null, true).getIIntentReceiver();
}
}
try {
final Intent intent = ActivityManager.getService().registerReceiver(
mMainThread.getApplicationThread(), mBasePackageName, rd, filter,
broadcastPermission, userId, flags);
if (intent != null) {
intent.setExtrasClassLoader(getClassLoader());
intent.prepareToEnterProcess();
}
return intent;
} catch (RemoteException e) {
throw e.rethrowFromSystemServer();
}
}

在上面的代码中,系统首先从mPackageInfo获取IIntentReceiver对象,然后再采用跨进程的方式向AMS发送广播注册的请求。之所以采用IIntentReceiver而不是直接采用BroadcastReceiver ,这是因为上述注册过程是一个进程间通信的过程,而BroadcastReceiver作为Android的一个组件是不能直接跨进程传递的,所以需要通过IIntentReceiver来中转一下。毫无疑问,IIntentReceiver必须是一个Binder接口,它的具体实现是LoadedApk.ReceiverDispatcher.InnerReceiver, ReceiverDispatcher的内部同时保存了BroadcastReceiverInnerReceiver,这样当接收到广播时,ReceiverDispatcher可以很方便地调用BroadcastReceiveronReceive方法。
看一下LoadedApk.getReceiverDispatcher方法:

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public IIntentReceiver getReceiverDispatcher(BroadcastReceiver r,
Context context, Handler handler,
Instrumentation instrumentation, boolean registered) {
synchronized (mReceivers) {
LoadedApk.ReceiverDispatcher rd = null;
ArrayMap<BroadcastReceiver, LoadedApk.ReceiverDispatcher> map = null;
if (registered) {
map = mReceivers.get(context);
if (map != null) {
rd = map.get(r);
}
}
if (rd == null) {
rd = new ReceiverDispatcher(r, context, handler,
instrumentation, registered);
if (registered) {
if (map == null) {
map = new ArrayMap<BroadcastReceiver, LoadedApk.ReceiverDispatcher>();
mReceivers.put(context, map);
}
map.put(r, rd);
}
} else {
rd.validate(context, handler);
}
rd.mForgotten = false;
return rd.getIIntentReceiver();
}
}

很显然,getReceiverDispatcher方法重新创建了一个ReceiverDispatcher对象并将其保存的InnerReceiver对象作为返回值返回,其中InnerReceiver对象和BroadcastReceiver都是在ReceiverDispatcher的构造方法中被保存起来的。
由于注册广播的真正实现过程是在AMS中,因此我们需要看一下AMS的具体实现。AMS的registerReceiver方法看起来很长,其实关键点就只有下面一部分,最终会把远程的InnerReceiver对象以及IntentFilter对象存储起来,这样整个广播的注册过程就完成了,代码如下所示。

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public Intent registerReceiver(IApplicationThread caller, String callerPackage,IIntentReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter, String permission, int userId) {
// The first sticky in the list is returned directly back to the client.
Intent sticky = allSticky != null ? allSticky.get(0) : null;
ReceiverList rl = mRegisteredReceivers.get(receiver.asBinder());
BroadcastFilter bf = new BroadcastFilter(filter, rl, callerPackage,permission, callingUid, userId);
rl.add(bf);
mReceiverResolver.addFilter(bf);
return sticky;
}

广播的发送过程

当通过send方法来发送广播时,AMS会查找出匹配的广播接收者并将广播发送给它们处理。广播的发送有几种类型:普通广播、有序广播和粘性广播,有序广播和粘性广播与普通广播相比具有不同的特性,但是它们的发送/接收过程的流程是类似的,因此这里只分析普通厂播的实现。广播的发送和接收,其本质是一个过程的两个阶段。这里从广播的发送可以说起,广播的发送仍然开始于ContextWrappersendBroadcast方法,之所以不是Context,那是因为ContextsendBroadcast是-一个抽象方法。和广播的注册过程一样,ContextWrappersendBroadcast方法仍然什么都不做,只是把事情交给ContextImpl去处理,ContextImpl的sendBroadcast方法的源码如下所示。

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@Override
public void sendBroadcast(Intent intent) {
warnIfCallingFromSystemProcess();
String resolvedType = intent.resolveTypeIfNeeded(getContentResolver());
try {
intent.prepareToLeaveProcess(this);
ActivityManager.getService().broadcastIntent(
mMainThread.getApplicationThread(), intent, resolvedType, null,
Activity.RESULT_OK, null, null, null, AppOpsManager.OP_NONE, null, false, false,
getUserId());
} catch (RemoteException e) {
throw e.rethrowFromSystemServer();
}
}

从_上面的代码来看,ContextImpl也是几乎什么事都没干,它直接向AMS发起了一个异步请求用于发送广播。因此,下面直接看AMS对广播发送过程的处理,AMS的broadcastIntent方法又调用了broadcastIntentLocked,在这个方法的开始有这么一行:

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// By default broadcasts do not go to stopped apps.
intent.addFlags(Intent.FLAG_EXCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES);

从Android3.1开始广播默认情况下广播不会发送给已经停止的应用。这是因为系统在Android3.1中为Intent添加了两个标记位,分别是FLAG_INCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGESFLAG_EXCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES,用来控制广播是否要对处于停止状态的应用起作用,它们的含义如下所示。
** FLAG_INCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES **
表示包含已经停止的应用,这个时候广播会发送给已经停止的应用。
** FLAG_EXCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES **
表示不包含已经停止的应用,这个时候广播不会发送给已经停止的应用。

从Android3.1开始,系统为所有广播默认添加了FLAG_EXCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES标志,这样做是为了防止广播无意间或者在不必要的时候调起已经停止运行的应用。如果的确需要调起未启动的应用,那么只需要为广播的Intent添加FLAG_INCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES标记即可。当FLAG_EXCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGESFLAG_INCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES两种标记位共存时,以FLAG_INCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES为准。这里需要补充一下,一个应用处于停止状态分为两种情形:
第一种是应用安装后未运行,
第二种是应用被手动或者其他应用强停了。
Android3.1中广播的这个特性同样会影响开机广播,从Android3.1开始,处于停止状态的应用同样无法接收到开机广播,而在Android 3.1之前,处于停止状态的应用是可以收到开机广播的。
broadcastIntentLocked的内部,会根据intent-filter查找出匹配的广播接收者并经过一系列的条件过滤,最终会将满足条件的广播接收者添加到BroadcastQueue中,接着BroadcastQueue就会将广播发送给相应的广播接收者,这个过程的源码如下所示。

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if ((receivers != null && receivers.size() > 0)
|| resultTo != null) {
BroadcastQueue queue = broadcastQueueForIntent(intent);
BroadcastRecord r = new BroadcastRecord(queue, intent, callerApp,
callerPackage, callingPid, callingUid, resolvedType,
requiredPermissions, appOp, brOptions, receivers, resultTo, resultCode,
resultData, resultExtras, ordered, sticky, false, userId);

if (DEBUG_BROADCAST) Slog.v(TAG_BROADCAST, "Enqueueing ordered broadcast " + r
+ ": prev had " + queue.mOrderedBroadcasts.size());
if (DEBUG_BROADCAST) Slog.i(TAG_BROADCAST,
"Enqueueing broadcast " + r.intent.getAction());

boolean replaced = replacePending && queue.replaceOrderedBroadcastLocked(r);
if (!replaced) {
queue.enqueueOrderedBroadcastLocked(r);
queue.scheduleBroadcastsLocked();
}
} else {
// There was nobody interested in the broadcast, but we still want to record
// that it happened.
if (intent.getComponent() == null && intent.getPackage() == null
&& (intent.getFlags()&Intent.FLAG_RECEIVER_REGISTERED_ONLY) == 0) {
// This was an implicit broadcast... let's record it for posterity.
addBroadcastStatLocked(intent.getAction(), callerPackage, 0, 0, 0);
}
}

将广播添加到BroadCastQueue之后,接着调用了scheduleBroadcastsLocked方法:

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public void scheduleBroadcastsLocked() {
if (DEBUG_BROADCAST) Slog.v(TAG_BROADCAST, "Schedule broadcasts ["
+ mQueueName + "]: current="
+ mBroadcastsScheduled);

if (mBroadcastsScheduled) {
return;
}
mHandler.sendMessage(mHandler.obtainMessage(BROADCAST_INTENT_MSG, this));
mBroadcastsScheduled = true;
}

方法内发送了一个BROADCAST_INTENT_MSG消息,handler接到消息后,调用了processNextBroadcast方法

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private final class BroadcastHandler extends Handler {
public BroadcastHandler(Looper looper) {
super(looper, null, true);
}

@Override
public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
switch (msg.what) {
case BROADCAST_INTENT_MSG: {
if (DEBUG_BROADCAST) Slog.v(TAG_BROADCAST, "Received BROADCAST_INTENT_MSG");
processNextBroadcast(true);
} break;
case BROADCAST_TIMEOUT_MSG: {
synchronized (mService) {
broadcastTimeoutLocked(true);
}
} break;
case SCHEDULE_TEMP_WHITELIST_MSG: {
DeviceIdleController.LocalService dic = mService.mLocalDeviceIdleController;
if (dic != null) {
dic.addPowerSaveTempWhitelistAppDirect(UserHandle.getAppId(msg.arg1),msg.arg2, true, (String)msg.obj);
}
} break;
}
}
}

收到消息后会调用processNextBroadcast方法,内容如下:

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// First, deliver any non-serialized broadcasts right away.
while (mParallelBroadcasts.size() > 0) {
r = mParallelBroadcasts.remove(0);
r.dispatchTime = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
r.dispatchClockTime = System.currentTimeMillis();

if (Trace.isTagEnabled(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER)) {
Trace.asyncTraceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER,
createBroadcastTraceTitle(r, BroadcastRecord.DELIVERY_PENDING),
System.identityHashCode(r));
Trace.asyncTraceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER,
createBroadcastTraceTitle(r, BroadcastRecord.DELIVERY_DELIVERED),
System.identityHashCode(r));
}

final int N = r.receivers.size();

for (int i=0; i<N; i++) {
Object target = r.receivers.get(i);
if (DEBUG_BROADCAST) Slog.v(TAG_BROADCAST,
"Delivering non-ordered on [" + mQueueName + "] to registered "
+ target + ": " + r);
deliverToRegisteredReceiverLocked(r, (BroadcastFilter)target, false, i);
}
addBroadcastToHistoryLocked(r);

}

可以看到,无序广播存储在mParallelBroadcasts中,系统会遍历mParallelBroadcasts并将其中的广播发送给它们所有的接收者,具体的发送过程是通过deliverToRegisteredReceiverLocked方法来实现的。deliverToRegisteredReceiverLocked方法负责将一个广播发送给一个特定的接收者,它内部调用了performReceiveLocked方法来完成具体的发送过程:

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performReceiveLocked(r.callerApp, r.resultTo,new Intent(r.intent), r.resultCode,r.resultData, r.resultExtras, false, false, r.userId);

performReceiveLocked方法的实现如下所示。由于接收广播会调起应用程序,因此app.thread不为null,根据前面的分析我们知道这里的app.thread仍然指ApplicationThread

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void performReceiveLocked(ProcessRecord app, IIntentReceiver receiver,Intent intent, int resultCode, String data, Bundle extras,boolean ordered, boolean sticky, int sendingUser) throws RemoteException {

// Send the intent to the receiver asynchronously using one-way binder calls.
if (app != null) {
if (app.thread != null) {
// If we have an app thread, do the call through that so it is
// correctly ordered with other one-way calls.
try {
app.thread.scheduleRegisteredReceiver(receiver, intent, resultCode,
data, extras, ordered, sticky, sendingUser, app.repProcState);
// TODO: Uncomment this when (b/28322359) is fixed and we aren't getting
// DeadObjectException when the process isn't actually dead.
//} catch (DeadObjectException ex) {
// Failed to call into the process. It's dying so just let it die and move on.
// throw ex;
} catch (RemoteException ex) {
// Failed to call into the process. It's either dying or wedged. Kill it gently.
synchronized (mService) {
Slog.w(TAG, "Can't deliver broadcast to " + app.processName
+ " (pid " + app.pid + "). Crashing it.");
app.scheduleCrash("can't deliver broadcast");
}
throw ex;
}
} else {
// Application has died. Receiver doesn't exist.
throw new RemoteException("app.thread must not be null");
}
} else {
receiver.performReceive(intent, resultCode, data, extras, ordered,
sticky, sendingUser);
}

}

ApplicationThreadscheduleRegisteredReceiver的实现比较简单,它通过InnerReceiver来实现广播的接收:

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// This function exists to make sure all receiver dispatching is
// correctly ordered, since these are one-way calls and the binder driver
// applies transaction ordering per object for such calls.
public void scheduleRegisteredReceiver(IIntentReceiver receiver, Intent intent,
int resultCode, String dataStr, Bundle extras, boolean ordered,
boolean sticky, int sendingUser, int processState) throws RemoteException {
updateProcessState(processState, false);
receiver.performReceive(intent, resultCode, dataStr, extras, ordered,
sticky, sendingUser);
}

InnerReceiverperformReceive方法会调用LoadedApk.ReceiverDispatcherperformReceive方法,LoadedApk.ReceiverDispatcherperformReceive方法的实现如下所示:

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public void performReceive(Intent intent, int resultCode, String data,Bundle extras, boolean ordered, boolean sticky, int sendingUser) {
final Args args = new Args(intent, resultCode, data, extras, ordered,
sticky, sendingUser);
if (intent == null) {
Log.wtf(TAG, "Null intent received");
} else {
if (ActivityThread.DEBUG_BROADCAST) {
int seq = intent.getIntExtra("seq", -1);
Slog.i(ActivityThread.TAG, "Enqueueing broadcast " + intent.getAction()
+ " seq=" + seq + " to " + mReceiver);
}
}
if (intent == null || !mActivityThread.post(args.getRunnable())) {
if (mRegistered && ordered) {
IActivityManager mgr = ActivityManager.getService();
if (ActivityThread.DEBUG_BROADCAST) Slog.i(ActivityThread.TAG,
"Finishing sync broadcast to " + mReceiver);
args.sendFinished(mgr);
}
}
}

在上面的代码中,会创建一个Args对象并通过mActivityThread的post方法来执行Args中的逻辑,而Args实现了Runnable接口。mActivityThread是一个Handler,它其实就是ActivityThread中的mH,mH的类型是ActivityThread的内部类H。在Args的run方法中有如下几行代码:

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final BroadcastReceiver receiver = mReceiver;
final boolean ordered = mOrdered;
receiver.setPendingResult(this);
receiver.onReceive(mContext, intent);

这个时候BroadcastReceiver的onReceive方法被执行了,也就是说应用已经接收到广播了,同时onReceive方法是在广播接收者的主线程中被调用的。


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